The constitution of the academic sector of science in the Republic of Moldova was initiated immediately after the Second World War (1939-1945). On the basis of the decision of the Government of the USSR of March 11, 1946 to organize in Chisinau the Base of scientific researches of the Academy of Sciences of USSR the Council of Ministries of MSSR and the Bureau of CC of the CP (b) of Moldova has adopted on June 12, 1946 the Decision Nr. 583 “ On the creation of the Moldovan Base of scientific researches of the Academy of Sciences of USSR in Chisinau. On June 29 the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR has examined and approved the structure of the Base, its main directions of research and the governing bodies. Subsequently, in 1949, the Base was transformed in the Moldovan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of USSR.
Academician Veaceslav Volghin, Vice-President of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, responsible for the coordination of activities of bases and branches of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, was appointed as the Director of the Base. In 1949 Pavel Baranov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, substituted him and was appointed as the President of the Presidium of Moldovan Branch. Macarie Radul was appointed as vice-director and beginning with 1947 Iachim Grosul, Doctor of Historical Sciences, substituted him, so that afterwards, beginning with 1954, he was appointed as the President of the Presidium of Moldovan Branch.
In the years that followed after the creation of the Moldovan Base, a series of measures were achieved regarding establishing and consolidation of technical-material basis, creation of research institutes, improvement of the way of scientific researches organization. The thorough development of scientific researches was accompanied by the improvement of organizational structure of the Moldovan Branch, which by 1960 has become an important scientific center of the republic, in the framework of which 9 institutes, the Botanical Garden and other autonomous institutes functioned, covering about 900 persons, among whose more than 250 scientific researchers, including 20 Doctors Habilitat and 110 Doctors of Sciences.
On July 26, 1960 the Government of the USSR adopted the Decision “ On the Creation of the Academy of Sciences of the Moldovan SSR’, on the basis of the scientific institutes of the Moldovan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of USSR. A similar decision was adopted on November 29, 1960 by the CC of the CP of Moldova, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldovan SSR and the Council of Ministers of the Moldovan SSR.
The inaugural act of constitution and opening of the Academy of Sciences of the Moldovan SSR took place on August 2, 1961. From the moment of foundation till the proclamation of the independence of the Republic of Moldova (August 27, 1991) the Academy of Sciences of Moldova was an integral part of the ex-soviet academic system, being subordinated both to the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of USSR and the Council of Ministries of the Moldovan SSR.
By the decision of the Government of the MSSR of August 1, 1961 11 Titular Members (Academicians) and 13 Corresponding Members of the Academy of Sciences were designated from among the scientists and people of culture. The following persons became Titular Members: Anton Ablov, Vladimir Andrunakievici, Vasile Cervinski, Procopie Dvornicov, Iachim Grosul, Boris Lazarenco, Gheorghe Lazurevski, Andrei Lupan, Iacob Print, Alexei Spasski, Iosif Vartican; Corresponding Members: Gheorghe Cealii, Nicolae Corlateanu, Ion Dicusar, Lazar Dorohov, Nicolae Frolov, Mihail Iarosenko, Anatolie Kovarski, Iurie Lealicov, Constantin Moraru, Iurie Petrov, Macarie Radul, Eugeniu Russev, Petru Ungureanu.
The first President of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova was Iachim Grosul, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, Academician of the A.S.M., Doctor Habilitat of Historical Sciences (1961-1976), followed by Alexandru Jucenco, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, Academician of the A.S.M., Doctor Habilitat of Biological Sciences (1977-1989), by Andrei Andries, Academician of the A.S.M., Doctor Habilitat of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (1989-2004) and Gheorghe Duca, Academician of the A.S.M., Doctor Habilitat of Chemical Sciences (beginning with 2004).
The constitution of the Academy of Sciences have had a constructive impact over further evolution of science in the republic, diversification of the fields of investigation, development of fundamental researches in the modern fields of contemporary science, capitalization of scientific, historic and cultural patrimony, implementation of scientific researches results in the national economy. During a relatively short period of time the Academy of Sciences went over a hard but fruitful way of consolidation and affirmation, of seeking and achievements.
The period 1961-1990 was highlighted by a continuing growth of the academic institutions role in the solution of the diverse problems of national economy and culture development, increasing of the level and competitiveness of scientific researches, significant consolidation of human scientific potential and of technical- scientific and experimental basis, training of scientific personnel of high qualification, creation of autochthon prestigious scientific schools in many fields of science, well-known and appreciated in the country and abroad by reaching European heights with opening to the world ones. Establishment and consolidation of the relations of scientific collaboration with the Academies of Sciences, scientific and higher education institutes from the former Soviet Union, Europe, Asia and USA also spotlights this period. The scientific-technological elaborations of scientists were patented in USA, Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Italy, Australia and other countries.
By the end of 80’ the Academy of Sciences has become the main scientific center of Moldova. In the framework of it there functioned 31 scientific, scientific-experimental and science service organizations, among which 21 institutes and research institutes. The personnel of the Academy constituted more than 5300 employees, among which 1312 were scientific researchers, including 125 Doctors Habilitat and 824 Doctors of Sciences.
An essential new stage in the development of the Academy of Sciences, of hopes and searches, is the period that followed after the proclamation of sovereignty (June 23, 1990) and independence (August 27, 1991) of the Republic of Moldova, due to which the A.S.M. has become a real scientific republican forum, an institution of research, with an adequate autonomy to solve its internal problems. This period was spotlighted by the constitution and development of the legislative and legislative-normative framework of the sphere of science and innovation and of the Academy of Sciences, modification and improvement of the organizational-institutional system of science management and of R&D activity. New Sections of Sciences were created, such as Section of Agricultural Sciences, Medical Sciences, and Technical Sciences, as well as new research institutes, a series of research sections with autonomous statute being reorganized. The democratic principles regarding the organization and management of the R&D activity were confirmed and promoted, the institutes being given the autonomy in the establishment of their structure and functioning mechanisms and in choosing the methods and means of activity. The possibilities of integration in the European and world scientific community were extended.